Help
Topics

About
the Scores
The Stanford 9 and STAR augmentation results
for the state,
counties, districts, and schools are final.
At the state level a total of 6.4% (272,935) student records do not include a
language fluency designation. The scores for those records are not included in group summaries for
LEP or for nonLEP reports at the state, county, district or school levels. The missing scores
are not evenly distributed across county, district or school reports.
The reports for "all" students, for economically disadvantaged and not economically
disadvantaged students, and for males and females, are not affected by the LEP data
discrepancies.
About the Scores Reported on the STAR Tests
Stanford 9
Stanford 9 scores are reported for the subjects tested at each grade
level: reading, written expression, mathematics, spelling, for grades 2
through 8; reading, writing, mathematics, science, social science, for
grades 9 through 11.
STAR Augmentation (California Content Standards)
STAR augmentation (California Content Standards) scores are reported
for language arts for grades 2 through 11. STAR augmentation scores
for mathematics are reported for all students for grades 2 through 7 and
grade 11. Mathematics scores for grades 8, 9, and 10 are reported
by mathematics course as specified in California's content standards: for
grade 8, algebra I or 1st year integrated mathematics; grade 9, geometry
or 2nd year integrated mathematics; and grade 10, algebra II or 3rd year
integrated mathematics.
SABE/2
For grades 2 through 8 SABE/2 scores are reported for reading, language,
mathematics, and spelling. For grades 9 through 11 scores are reported
for reading, language, and mathematics.
Types of Scores Reported
Stanford 9
For each school, district, county and for the state, the following
types of scores are reported by grade level and content area:

NPR (national percentile rank) of the "average" student estimates the individual
percentile rank of a hypothetical "average" student in this group.

% (percent of students) scoring above the 75th NPR shows the percent of
students in the group scoring in the top quarter nationally.

% (percent of students) scoring at or above the 50th NPR shows the percent
of students in the group scoring in the top half nationally.

% (percent of students) scoring above the 25th NPR shows the percent of
students in the group scoring in the top threequarters nationally.

Mean Scaled Score estimates the group average scaled score for each grade
level.
SABE/2
For each school, district, county and for the state, the following types
of scores are reported by grade level and content area:
RPR (reference percentile rank) of the "average" student estimates the
individual percentile rank of a hypothetical "average" student in this
group.

% (percent of students) scoring above the 75th RP shows the percent of
students in the group scoring in the top quarter of the reference group.

% (percent of students) scoring at or above the 50th RP shows the percent
of students in the group scoring in the top half of the reference group.

% (percent of students) scoring above the 25th RP shows the percent of
students in the group scoring in the top threequarters of the reference
group.

Mean Scaled Score estimates the group average scaled score for each grade
level.
STAR Augmentation (California Content Standards)
Average Number Correct out of Total Number Possible: The group scores
reported for the STAR augmentation are "raw scores" that are the average
number correct out of the total number of items possible. The total number
of items is the sum of the items created specifically for the augmentation
plus selected items from the Stanford 9. For English/language arts the
totals consist of 35 augmentation items plus 40 selected Stanford 9 items
at grades two and three and 55 selected Stanford 9 items at grades four
through eleven. For mathematics, 15 items from the Stanford 9 were identified
as standardsbased at grades two through seven and added to the 35 newly
created standardsbased items, for a total of 50 items.
At grades 8 through 10, 15 items at each level were selected from the
Stanford 9 to be combined with the augmented test items designated as appropriate
to that grade level. Thus the total number of items possible on the mathematics
tests at grades 8 through 10 is also 5015 Stanford 9 items plus 35 augmentation
items. Students taking the algebra I STAR augmentation at grade 9, however,
would not take any Stanford 9 items identified as contributing to the total
score because the Stanford 9 items selected for use at grade 9 were chosen
as foundation skills for geometry, not for algebra. No total score can
be calculated for students who did not take both grade level components
that contribute to the total score. While no augmentation scores will be
reported at grades eight through ten for students tested with other than
the test designated for that grade level, the number of students taking
the test and the percent of enrollment are reported.
Score Explanations
Percentile Ranks
A percentile rank is the percent of people in the norming sample who
have scores less than or equal to a student's score. A student with a reading
comprehension score at the 60th percentile scored equal to or better than
60 percent of the students in the norming sample. Stanford 9 is a nationally
normed test. This means that the norming sample is representative of a
national crosssection of students. The norming sample for Stanford 9 included
students from the northeastern, midwestern, southern, and western regions
of the U.S. The sample also was representative of the nation in terms of
ethnicity, urbanicity, socioeconomic status, and students enrolled in
private and Catholic schools. Since Stanford 9 is a nationally normed test,
its norming sample was representative of the nation, but not necessarily
of the state. The composition of this sample can be found in a Frequently
Asked Questions (FAQ's) section of the California Department of Education
web site (http://www.cde.ca.gov/statetests).
The SABE/2 is designed for students whose primary language is Spanish,
and it was normed on a group of Spanish speaking students in bilingual
classes in 12 states with substantial populations of Spanish speaking students,
including California. Because the norming group was not a nationally
representative sample, all the normed scores are called "reference" scores
rather than "national" scores. Students are compared to the performance
of students in the reference group that is similar to them in the same
way students who take the Stanford 9 are compared to the performance of
the representative national sample.
NPR (National Percentile Rank) of the "Average" Student
For the STAR program, Stanford 9 reports national percentile ranks
(NPRs) for individual students, but does not produce group level (e.g.,
school or district) percentile scores. A mean percentile rank for a group
cannot be calculated from percentile ranks for individuals because they
cannot be added or averaged across students. The national percentile rank
of a hypothetical "average" student can be approximated by the following
procedure. First, find the average NCE score for a group of students.
NCE scores divide the normal curve into 99 equal units. Next, find
the percentle score that is equivalent to the mean NCE. This mean
percentile can be roughly interpreted as the 'NPR (national percentile
rank) of the "average" student.'
RPR of the "Average" Student
Because the SABE/2 uses a reference sample of Spanish speaking students
rather than a national representative sample of all students, all the percentile
scores are compared to the reference group. The Reference Percentile
of the "Average" student is calculated for groups of Spanish speaking students
just as the National Percentile of the "Average" student is calculated
for nationally normed tests such as the Stanford 9. Normal curve
equivalent scores were used in the same way for the SABE/2 as for the Stanford
9 to estimate a percentile rank for the "average" student.
% Scoring Above the 75th NPR, % Scoring At or Above the 50th NPR,
and % Scoring Above the 25th NPR
These scores correspond to the percent of students in the school, district,
county, or state scoring in the top quarter nationally; the percent of
students scoring in the top half nationally; and the percent of students
scoring in the top threequarters nationally. The three levels used to
create these group scores are the 75th, 50th, and 25th national percentiles,
respectively. The percent of students scoring above each level is calculated
by counting the number of students scoring at or above a particular level
(e.g., 50th percentile) or above a particular level (e.g., 25th percentile
and the 75th percentile), dividing by the total number of scores, and converting
to a percentage. The percent scoring at or above the 50th percentile is
the percent of students in this school, district, county, or state whose
scores would place them in the top half of the students tested nationally.
The percent scoring above the 75th percentile and above the 25th percentile
are the percents of students in this group whose scores would place them
in the top quarter and top threequarters, respectively, of the students
tested nationally.
% Scoring Above the 75th RP, % Scoring At or Above the 50th RP, and
% Scoring Above the 25th RP
These scores are similar to the scores above, except that the SABE/2
comparison group is a "reference" group of Spanish speaking students in
bilingual classes.
Mean Scaled Score
Raw scores identify the number of items answered correctly on a test
or subtest. Raw scores are limited in their measurement precision because
of differences among test items. For example, some items are more difficult
than others. A scaled score takes item differences into account and
is calculated to provide a more precise measure of the knowledge or skills
tested. Through this calculation, an increase of one point at one place
on the scale is described as being equal to a onepoint increase anywhere
else on the scale. Scaled scores are particularly useful for reporting
changes over time. The Stanford Achievement Test Series provides results
in terms of scaled scores for individual students and a mean or average
scaled score for groups of students. The SABE/2 also provides scaled scores
for individual students and a mean or average scaled score for groups of
students. Scaled scores can be compared within the same test, but
not between two different tests (e.g. Stanford 9 and SABE/2), nor even
two different subjects on the same test, (e.g. Reading and Mathematics).
For example, the scale on the Stanford 9 starts at approximately 200 and
goes to 900, while the SABE/2 starts at 1 and goes to 999. A scaled
score of 500 will have very different meanings on the Stanford 9 5th grade
reading test, the Stanford 9 5th grade math test, and the SABE/2 5th grade
reading test.
Comparing Scores
Comparing Group Test Results
One of the reasons that the same test is used year to year, and is
used with all schools, is to allow for comparisons over time and among
schools. The most defensible comparison score is the "PAC 50"the
percent of students in the group scoring at or above the 50th percentile.
There are a variety of comparisons possible, each with their own set of
cautions.
Same Year, Within School Comparisons
A school may wish to compare the performance of students at different
grade levels. By looking at the percent of students scoring above
the 50th percentile at each grade level, in the same subjectfor example,
readingsimilarities and differences in the performance of students at
different grade levels can be noted. When making such comparisons
it is important to remember that the number of students in each group affects
the confidence in the inferences that one can make about such comparisons.
Same School, Different Years Comparisons
There are two types of comparisons that can be made in the same school
with two or more years of data. A cohort comparison looks at the
performance of a group of students over time. For example, hypothetically
in 1998 54% of the third grade students scored at or above the 50th percentile
in reading. In 1999, 58% of the fourth graders scored at or above
the 50th percentile in reading. That cohort's reading scores improved four
percentage points. In a cross sectional comparison, last year's third
grade results are compared to this year's third grade results. In the cohort
comparison it is important to remember that even if the same number of
students are represented in the '99 fourth grade as were in the '98 third
grade, the groups' composition may be quite different if student
mobility (transiency) is high.
Scaled Score Comparisons (Cohort)
While scaled scores cannot be compared between different tests or subject
areas, scaled scores are useful to compare performance over time on the
same test. For example, if the second grade in a school had 52% scoring
above the 50th percentile, and the same group of students as third graders
also had 52% scoring above the 50th percentile, the only way to determine
if the students actually demonstrated growth over the year is a comparison
of the average scaled score from one year to the next. In fact, if
a group maintains the same position relative to the norm group, the scaled
score would increase, because the norm group also increases its scaled
score from year to year. Even if the percent of students scoring
above the 50th percentile decreased slightlysay from 52% to 51%, it would
be incorrect to infer that the students had not improved. It is necessary
to look at the mean scaled scores in order to determine whether students
have progressed.
Linking Reports
Linking 1998 and 1999 Reports
To make comparisons, it is necessary to look at comparable groupsfor
example, the results for a school in 1998 and 1999. After following
directions to find the school report for 1999, to find the 1998 results
it is necessary to click Spring 1998 STAR Reports
icon. This icon can be found on the sidebar of many of these pages.
An additional report providing cohort comparisons between 1998 and 1999
scores can be found by selecting the More About STAR
icon also found on the sidebar of many of these pages.
Linking School, District, County, and State Reports
In the upper left of each school report page, you will find the name
of the state (California), county, school district, and school that corresponds
to the report. Each of these underlined names provides a direct link to
the report for the corresponding district and county, and for the state.
Similarly, district reports are linked to the county and state reports,
and county reports are linked to the state report. Click on any of these
underlined links to display the report for that district or county, or
for the state.
Printing Reports
These reports may be printed, but may not appear as you see them when
printed in standard portrait format. Adjust your print setting to landscape
(sideways) mode for better results. 