The Governor signed Senate Bill 376 authorizing the Standardized Testing and Reporting (STAR) Program in October 1997. The State Board of Education (SBE), as required by statute, designated the Stanford Achievement Test Series, Ninth Edition (Stanford 9) as the national norm-referenced achievement tests for the STAR Program. These tests were first administered to students in grades two through eleven in California public schools during spring 1998. They were last administered as part of the STAR Program during spring 2002. School districts were required to administer the tests to all students in grades two through eleven, with the following exceptions:
Students who were receiving special education services with individualized
education programs (IEPs) that specified that the students were to have an
alternate assessment; and
- Students whose parents/guardians submitted written requests to exempt the students from testing.
Students in grades two through eleven were tested in reading, language, and mathematics. Students in grades two through eight were also tested in spelling, and students in grades nine through eleven were tested in science and social science. All questions on the tests were multiple-choice. The purpose of the Stanford 9 was to compare each student's achievement of general skills taught throughout the United States to the achievement of a national sample of students tested in the same grade at the same time of the school year.
In 1998, the SBE designated the Spanish Assessment of Basic Education, Second Edition (SABE/2) as the primary language test for the STAR Program. Beginning in spring 1999, Spanish-speaking English learners (ELs) who were enrolled in California public schools less than 12 months when testing began were required to take the SABE/2 as well as the Stanford 9 and the Stanford 9 Augmentation/California Standards Tests (CSTs). School districts were given the option of also testing Spanish-speaking ELs enrolled in California public schools 12 months or more with the SABE/2.
During the 1998–99 school year, multiple-choice questions were developed specifically to assess the California English–language arts (ELA) and mathematics content standards. These questions, initially referred to as the Stanford 9 Augmentation, were administered for the first time during spring 1999. Students received CST scores based on questions selected from the Stanford 9 tests and the California-specific questions.
The purpose of the CSTs is to determine students' achievement of the California content standards for each grade or course. Students' scores are compared to preset criteria to determine whether the students' performance on the test is advanced, proficient, basic, below basic, or far below basic. The state target is for all students to score at the proficient and advanced levels.
The legislature reauthorized the STAR Program during 2002, and the SBE selected the California Achievement Tests, Sixth Edition Survey (CAT/6 Survey) to replace the Stanford 9 as the national norm-referenced test for the STAR Program beginning with the spring 2003 test administration. The SBE also authorized the development of the California Alternate Performance Assessment (CAPA), an individually administered assessment for students with significant cognitive disabilities whose disabilities preclude them from taking the CSTs and CAT/6 Survey even with modifications. The CAPA assesses the California ELA, mathematics, and science content standards that were identified as appropriate for students with significant cognitive disabilities. The CAPA was first administered during spring 2003.
In August 2004, the Governor signed legislation reauthorizing the STAR Program through 2011. The reauthorized program reduced the CAT/6 Survey to grades three and seven.
During 2005, the SBE designated the Aprenda: La prueba de logros en español, Tercera edición (Aprenda 3) to replace the SABE/2 as the designated primary language test (DPLT) for the STAR Program. Beginning in 2006, Spanish-speaking ELs who were receiving instruction in Spanish were required to take the DPLT, as were Spanish-speaking ELs who had been enrolled in school in the United States less than 12 months when testing began. School districts had the option of administering the Aprenda 3 to Spanish-speaking ELs who had been enrolled in school in the United States 12 months or more who were not receiving instruction in Spanish. The change came about through a new state law that became effective on January 1, 2006. The DPLT was administered until 2008.
Senate Bill 1448, which reauthorized the STAR Program, included the development of assessments for reading/language arts and mathematics in the state's dominant primary language. The legislation required that the assessments be aligned to the California academic content standards. The Standards-based Tests in Spanish (STS) were developed to replace the DPLT and are required for the same population of students who took the DPLT. Those tests were first administered in the spring of 2007 to students in grades two through four. Beginning in 2009, the STS was available for students in grades two through eleven. Students taking the STS are also required to take the CSTs and/or the California Modified Assessment (CMA).
In April 2007, the U.S. Department of Education enacted regulations for an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards. In response to the federal regulations, the CDE has developed an alternate assessment of the California content standards based on modified achievement standards for children with an IEP who meet the eligibility criteria adopted by the State Board of Education. The test, known as the CMA, includes assessments for ELA, mathematics, and science. Eligible students may take either the CST or the CMA in a subject area. For example, a student in grade five may take the CST for ELA and take the CMA for mathematics and science. The CMA was first administered in the spring of 2008 to students in grades three through five. Beginning in 2011, the CMA was available to students in grades three through eleven.
The 2012 STAR Program includes four components:
- California Standards Tests
- California Modified Assessment
- California Alternate Performance Assessment
- Standards-based Tests in Spanish
The CSTs are a major component of California's accountability system for schools and school districts. CST, CMA, and CAPA results are the major component used for calculating each school's Academic Performance Index (API). These results are also used for determining whether elementary and middle schools are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in helping all students become proficient on the California content standards, as required by the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Schools use CST results to identify high school seniors eligible for the California Golden State Seal Merit Diploma. The eligibility requirements for the diploma are posted at http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/sr/meritdiploma.asp.
Milestones for the STAR Program
|2000||Stand-alone mathematics CSTs that used no Stanford 9 questions
were developed for grades eight through eleven
|2001||Stand-alone history–social science and science CSTs were developed and
administered in grades nine through eleven.
The writing component was added to the grade four and grade seven ELA CSTs.
Performance levels were reported for ELA CSTs.
|2002||Performance levels were reported for all CSTs.
The grade four and grade seven writing components were combined with the multiple-choice components to produce the ELA CST scores.
|2003||Grade nine History–Social Science CST was moved to grade eight.
All CSTs were administered as stand-alone tests.
CAPA was first administered.
|2004||Grade five Science CST was added.
|2006||Grade eight Science and grade ten Life Science CSTs were added.
|2007||STS in reading/language arts and mathematics for grades
two through four were added.
Students in grade seven were allowed to take the Algebra I CST if they had completed the course.
Students in grades nine through eleven were allowed to take the CST for world history if they had completed the course.
|2008||CMAs for grades three through five were added for
ELA, mathematics and science (grade five only).
STS for reading/language arts and mathematics for grades five through seven were added.
CAPA science test became operational.
|2009||CMAs were added for ELA (grades six through eight), mathematics (grades six
and seven), and science (grade eight).
Writing assessments were also added as part of the CMA for ELA in grades four and seven.
STS were added for reading/language arts (grades eight through eleven), Algebra I, and Geometry.
CAT/6 Survey and Aprenda 3 no longer administered.
|2010||CMAs were added for ELA (grade nine), Algebra I (grades seven through eleven), and Life Science (grade ten).
CST and CMA writing tests only administered in grade seven.
|2011||CMAs were added for ELA (grades ten and eleven) and Geometry.
CST and CMA writing tests administered in grades four and seven.
|2012||Performance levels were reported for all CMA tests.