Score Explanations
N
The number of students with valid test scores for the content area
reported. This is the number of students used for calculating the
average scores reported.
Performance Standards
Performance standards identify levels of student achievement based
on a demonstrated degree of mastery of the academic content standards
tested. California uses five performance standards for its California
Standards Tests:
 Advanced performance in relation to the academic content standards
tested
 Proficient performance in relation to the academic content standards
tested
 Basic performance in relation to the academic content standards
tested
 Below Basic performance in relation to the academic content
standards tested
 FarBelow Basic performance in relation to the academic content
standards tested
The number and percent of students with California Standards Test
scores for Englishlanguage arts, mathematics, science and historysocial
science at each performance standard are reported for schools, districts,
counties, and the state. At grades 2, 3, 5, 6, and 8 through 11,
the performance standards are based only on the multiplechoice
component of the standards tests. At Grades 4 and 7, the 2002 writing
test results are included in the performance standards.
The performance standards for each grade and content area are based
on scaled scores that range between approximately 200 and 500. The
score dividing the basic scores from belowbasic is 300 for every
grade and content area. The score dividing basic scores from proficient
scores is 350 for every grade and content area. Tables that include
the score range for each grade level, content area, and academic
performance (achievement) standard are at www.cde.ca.gov/statetests/star/.
Performance standards have not been adopted and are not reported
for the California Integrated Science Standards Tests.
Percentile Ranks
A percentile rank is the percent of people in the norming sample
who had scores less than or equal to a student's score. A student
with a reading comprehension score at the 60th percentile scored
as well or better than 60 percent of the students in the norming
groups.
NPR (National Percentile Rank) of the "Average" Student
There is no provision for producing group level, school or district
percentile ranks. The percentile ranks of individual students cannot
be used to produce an average percentile rank for a group, because
percentile ranks cannot be added or averaged across students. The
national percentile rank for the "average" student is an arithmetically
derived score that may not equal a score for any student in the
group. This is why the score is attributed to a hypothetical student.
RPR of the "Average" Student
RPRs of the "Average" Student for the SABE/2 are calculated in the
same way that NPRs are calculated for the Stanford 9.
% Scoring Above the 75th NPR, % Scoring At or Above the
50th NPR, and % Scoring Above the 25th NPR
These scores correspond to the percent of students in the school,
district, county, or state with scores corresponding to those of
students in the top quarter of the 1995 national sample (above 75th
NPR), in the top half of the 1995 national sample (at or above the
50th NPR), and in the top threequarters of the 1995 national sample
(above the 25th NPR). The percent of students scoring above each
level is calculated by counting the number of students with scores
above a particular NPR (76th NPR and higher) and dividing by the
total number of students tested. Note that the percent of students
scoring at or above the 50th NPR is a subset of students scoring
above the 25th NPR, and the percent of students scoring above the
75th NPR is a subset of the group scoring at or above the 50th NPR.
The percent of students scoring at or above the 50th NPR is sometimes
referred to as the percent of students scoring at or above grade
level. To obtain the percent of students in the school, district,
county or state that had scores in the lowest quarter of the national
sample subtract the percent scoring above the 25th NPR from 100.
% Scoring Above the 75th RP, % Scoring Above the 50th
RP, and % Scoring Above the 25th RP
These scores are similar to the NPR scores, except that the comparison
group is Spanishspeaking students in Spanish bilingual classes.
Mean Scaled Score
Raw scores identify the number of questions answered correctly on
a test or subtest. Score tables are used to convert raw scores
to scaled scores. A scaled score takes differences in the difficulty
of test forms into account. Scaled scores are useful for reporting
changes over time. The Stanford 9 provides results in terms of scaled
scores for individual students and mean or average scaled scores
for groups of students. Scaled scores are also reported for the
California Standards Tests and the SABE/2 for individual students
and mean or average scaled scores for groups of students. Stanford
9 scaled scores cannot be compared with the California Standards
Tests or SABE/2 scaled scores. Scaled scores should also not be
used to compare two different content areas, such as reading and
mathematics, on the same test.
Scaled scores for individual students or groups of students within
each content area should increase each year on the Stanford 9 and
SABE/2, because the tests use a continuous scale from the lowest
to the highest grade levels of the tests. The California Standards
Tests scaled scores may not increase from year to year, because
each grade and content area is scaled independently rather than
using a continuous scale from the lowest to the highest grade.
% Of Enrollment
Schools submitted student information for every student enrolled
on the first day the Stanford 9 and California Standards Tests were
administered. The percentage of enrollment is the number of students
with valid test scores divided by the number of students enrolled
on the first day of testing. In some instances the percentage may
exceed 100% due to students who enrolled in a school after the first
day of testing who were tested with subtests administered after
they enrolled.
